Mechanical press basics
Stamping machine press is the most important and most common in the four major processes of automobile manufacturing.
One of the commonly used devices. It mainly relies on the pressing energy of the press to work on the die.
The steel plate in the middle is shaped to become the casing of the automobile body.
Basic components of the press
The power energy system includes an electric motor and a flywheel. The electric motor provides a power source and the flywheel acts to store and release energy.
The drive train transfers the motion and energy of the motor to the working mechanism. It consists of a belt drive and a gear drive.
Working mechanism The working actuator of the press. Generally, it is a crank slider mechanism composed of a crankshaft, a connecting rod, a slider and the like.
Support parts such as the body. Connect and secure components to ensure their relative position and motion. The body must withstand all the craftsmanship when working.
Operation and control system mainly includes clutches, brakes, electronic and electrical detection and control devices.
Auxiliary systems and accessories include pneumatic systems, hydraulics, lubrication systems, air cushions, and quick die changers.
The main drive system of the press is placed inside the beam:
1. The first-class transmission is the “M” type multi-strap belt drive.
The main motor transmits energy to the flywheel through multiple zones
2. The secondary transmission is a herringbone gear transmission
Flywheel rotation transfers energy to the high speed shaft and then to the herringbone gear
3. Three-stage transmission is herringbone or spur gear transmission
The herringbone gear is transmitted to the straight or herringbone teeth, so that the eccentric wheel is transmitted to the slipper through the connecting rod
Main parameters of the press
The technical parameters of the press reflect the process capability, application range and life of the press.
Indicators such as yield are the main basis for the correct selection of presses.
1. Nominal pressure and nominal pressure stroke:
The maximum allowable punching capacity of the press that can be fully absorbed by the structure; that is,
The maximum allowable action of the slider when the slider is at a certain distance from the bottom dead center
force. This specific distance is called the nominal pressure stroke.
2, slider stroke
The distance the slider passes from top dead center to bottom dead center. Its size varies with process use and nominal pressure.
3, the number of slider strokes
The number of slider strokes means that the slider goes from top dead center to bottom dead point every minute, and then back
The number of times to go to the top dead center. The unit is: spm, the number of strokes per minute.
The press clutch and brake are used to move or stop the press crank linkage when the motor and the flywheel are continuously rotating. Therefore, the clutches and brakes are transmission components that are indispensable for the normal operation of the press, and the two must work closely and cooperatively.
The mold upper mold is fixed on the slider. During the stamping stroke, the slider moves smoothly up and down.
There is an upper air cushion in the slider of some presses.
There are also mold clamping devices in the slider of some presses.
Some presses also have a quick clamping of the upper die.
There is a hydraulic protection device inside the slider. Hydraulic protection is an important protection device for the equipment. The hydraulic protection device consists of a hydraulic pad, a fuel tank, a pipeline, a pressure regulating valve, and a pressure gauge.
The guide rail is in contact between the slider and the column, and the contact surface is cooled and lubricated by lubricating oil. There is an oil tank on the column below each rail, and the oil tank is returned to the main tank.
There is a balancer between the slider and the beam and the column.
It can prevent the slider from falling rapidly due to its own weight when the slider moves downward, causing the gear in the transmission system to be subjected to the force in the reverse direction to cause impact and noise;
The gap between the connecting rod and the slider can be eliminated, and the impact and wear of the stressed parts can be reduced;
The power consumption of the mold height adjusting mechanism can be reduced;
It can prevent accidents caused by the falling of the slider when the brake is broken or the connecting rod is broken.
The lower die of the mold is fixed on the workbench. The press table can be moved for easy and quick mold change.
In order to ensure the accuracy of the stamping part, the parallelism of the work surface and the lower plane of the slider is required to be high.
The table has a clamping device fixed to the base of the press.
Most of the electric cabinets of the press are placed on the platform of the electric cabinet. The electrical cabinet is the core part of the press control, and the operator does not allow any components in the power cabinet. But the panel of the electric cabinet must be kept clean.